Assessment of vaccine herd protection: Lessons learned from cholera and typhoid vaccine trials

Vaccine herd protection is the extension of the defense conferred by immunization beyond the vaccinated to unvaccinated persons in a population, as well as the enhancement of the protection among the vaccinated, due to vaccination of the surrounding population. Vaccine herd protection has traditionally been inferred from observations of disease trends after inclusion of a vaccine in national immunization schedules. Rather than awaiting outcomes of widescale vaccine deployment, earlier-stage...

Field study reveals morphological and neuroendocrine correlates of seasonal breeding in female water voles, Arvicola terrestris

Seasonally breeding mammals display timely physiological switches between reproductive activity and sexual rest, which ensure synchronisation of births at the most favourable time of the year. These switches correlate with seasonal changes along the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, but they are primarily orchestrated at the hypothalamic level through environmental control of KISS1-dependent GnRH release. Our field study shows that births of fossorial water voles, Arvicola terrestris, are...

Unmitigated Surgical Castration in Calves of Different Ages: Electroencephalographic and Neurohormonal Findings

Castration is a common management procedure employed in North American cattle production and is known to cause a pain response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of unmitigated surgical castration on the electroencephalography (EEG) responses and plasma substance P (SP) concentrations in calves of different ages under the same experimental conditions. Thirty male Holstein calves in three age categories [<6 weeks (6W); 3 months (3M); 6 months (6M); 10 calves per age group]...

Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Nairobi Sheep Disease Orthonairovirus Infections in Sheep and Cattle

Nairobi sheep disease orthonairovirus (NSDV) is a zoonotic tick-borne arbovirus, which causes severe gastroenteritis in small ruminants. To date, the virus is prevalent in East Africa and Asia. However, due to climate change, including the spread of transmitting tick vectors and increased animal movements, it is likely that the distribution range of NSDV is enlarging. In this project, sheep and cattle (hitherto classified as resistant to NSDV) were experimentally infected with NSDV for a...

High fat diet alters male seminal plasma composition to impair female immune adaptation for pregnancy in mice

Paternal experiences and exposures prior to conception can influence fetal development and offspring phenotype. The composition of seminal plasma contributes to paternal programming effects, through modulating the female reproductive tract immune response after mating. To investigate whether paternal obesity affects seminal plasma immune-regulatory activity, C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 14 weeks. While HFD consumption caused only minor...

Transcriptomic analysis of primate placentas and novel rhesus trophoblast cell lines informs investigations of human placentation

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings help elucidate the molecular translatability between human and rhesus placenta and reveal notable expression differences in several HPGs and genes implicated in pregnancy complications that should be considered when using the rhesus animal model to study normal and pathological human placentation.

Early maternal separation is not associated with changes in telomere length in domestic kittens (<em>Felis catus</em>)

OBJECTIVE: Studies of multiple species have found that adverse early life experiences, including childhood trauma and maternal separation, can result in accelerated telomere shortening. The objective of this study was to determine if premature separation from the mother affected telomere length in domestic kittens (Felis catus). Subjects were 42 orphaned kittens and 10 mother-reared kittens from local animal rescue groups and shelters. DNA was extracted from whole blood collected from kittens at...

Vegan versus meat-based pet foods: Owner-reported palatability behaviours and implications for canine and feline welfare

Consumer suspicion of conventional pet foods, along with perceived health benefits of alternative diets, are fuelling development of the latter. These include raw meat diets, in vitro meat products, and diets based on novel protein sources such as terrestrial and marine plants, insects, yeast and fungi. However, some claim vegan diets may be less palatable, or may compromise animal welfare. We surveyed 4,060 dog or cat guardians to determine the importance to them of pet food palatability, and...

NEOURETEROCYSTOSTOMY AND URETHRAL STENT PLACEMENT IN A BLACK-HANDED SPIDER MONKEY (<em>ATELES GEOFFROYI</em>)

A 27-y-old female black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) was evaluated 13 d after an ovariohysterectomy because of abdominal distension, anorexia, and absent urination. The animal was diagnosed with a uroabdomen and urethral obstruction from computed tomographic findings and fluid creatinine levels. During exploratory laparotomy, a defect in the right ureter was confirmed as the source of the uroabdomen. Utilizing intraoperative fluoroscopy, a urethral obstruction with an irregular...

Corrigendum: Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Meloxicam Between Healthy Post-partum vs. Mid-lactation Dairy Cattle

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00548.].

Tuberculosis seroprevalence and comparison of hematology and biochemistry parameters between seropositive and seronegative captive Asian elephants of Nepal

We conducted a tuberculosis serosurveillance program of captive elephants in Nepal and compared hematology and biochemistry parameters between seropositive and seronegative elephants. A total of 153 elephants (male=20, female=133) from four national parks were tested for Tuberculosis (TB) using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK^(®) Assay (ChemBio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Medford, NY, USA). The mean reported age for 138 elephants was 38.5 years (range 2-71 years). Seroprevalence for TB was 21.56%...

Proteomic Dissection of the Impact of Environmental Exposures on Mouse Seminal Vesicle Function

Seminal vesicles are an integral part of the male reproductive accessory gland system. They produce a complex array of secretions containing bioactive constituents that support gamete function and promote reproductive success, with emerging evidence suggesting these secretions are influenced by our environment. Despite their significance, the biology of seminal vesicles remains poorly defined. Here, we complete the first proteomic assessment of mouse seminal vesicles and assess the impact of the...

Antioxidant and Inflammatory Gene Expression Profiles of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Response to <em>Arthrospira platensis</em> before and after LPS Challenge

Oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases are closely related processes that need to be controlled to ensure the desirable high performance of livestock. The microalga spirulina has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in monogastric species. To investigate potential beneficial effects in ruminants, we replaced soybean meal (SOY) in the diets of dairy cows and fattening bulls by spirulina (SPI) and analyzed plasma concentrations of antioxidants (β-carotene, α-tocopherol,...

Recommendations for Ensuring Good Welfare of Horses Used for Industrial Blood, Serum, or Urine Production

Various pharmaceutical products have been derived from horse blood and urine for over a century. Production of biologics and therapeutics from these samples is a niche industry and often occurs in regions with little regulation or veterinary oversight. To ensure good welfare of horses maintained for these purposes, guidance has been developed to support the industry.

Seasonal diet-based resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in the fossorial water vole (Arvicola amphibius)

Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) resistance has been defined as "a major loss of efficacy due to the presence of a strain of rodent with a heritable and commensurately reduced sensitivity to the anticoagulant". The mechanism that supports this resistance has been identified as based on mutations in the Vkorc1 gene leading to severe resistance in rats and mice. This study evaluates the validity of this definition in the fossorial water vole and explores the possibility of a non-genetic diet-based...