Impact of animal saliva on the performance of rapid antigen tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 (wildtype and variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351)

SARS-CoV-2 infects several animal species and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) may even show (as in humans) enhanced inter- and intra-species transmission rates. We correlated sensitivity data of SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests (RATs) to viral RNA genome equivalents analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further, we checked their suitability for testing animals by assessing saliva and VOC effects. Viral loads up to 2 logs (RNA copy number) under the...

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Assessment of One Health Knowledge, Animal Welfare Implications, and Emergency Preparedness Considerations for Effective Public Health Response

CONCLUSIONS: One Health knowledge and awareness should be further explored in the current US public health workforce to identify training needs for emergency preparedness and other collaborative opportunities.

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in a cat in Germany

Several non-variant of concern SARS-CoV-2 infections in pets have been reported as documented in the OIE and GISAID databases and there is only one fully documented case of an alpha variant of concern (VOC)(B.1.1.7) in the United States so far. Here, we describe the first case in a cat infected with the alpha SARS-CoV-2 variant in Germany. A cat suffering from pneumonia was presented to a veterinary practice. The pneumonia was treated symptomatically, but 16 days later the cat was presented...

Effect of rubber and concrete flooring on resting behavior, hock injuries, and milk production of primiparous Friesian crossbred dairy cows housed in a free-stall barn in Mid-Country, Sri Lanka

The floor surface of the cubicle is a detrimental factor on cow comfort. The effects of two floor types, rubber and concrete, on dairy cow comfort and milk production were compared for a period of 13 weeks. Fourteen Friesian crossbred dairy cows with an average body weight of 425.67 ± 61.12 kg (mean ± SD), nose to tail body length of 2.07 ± 0.15 m, rump height of 1.29 ± 0.02 m, hook bone width of 0.48 ± 0.05 m, and body condition score (BCS) of 4.13 ± 0.44 were used, with seven cows per flooring...

Photoperiod is involved in the regulation of seasonal breeding in male water voles (Arvicola terrestris)

Mammals living at temperate latitudes typically display annual cyclicity in their reproductive activity: births are synchronized when environmental conditions are most favorable. In a majority of these species, daylength is the main proximate factor used to anticipate seasonal changes and to adapt physiology. The brain integrates this photoperiodic signal through key hypothalamic structures, which regulate the reproductive axis. In this context, our study aims to characterize regulations that...

Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Linked to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Apolipoprotein E3 and E4 Mice

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of surgery and anesthesia depend on baseline neurocognitive status and are associated with APOE isoform-dependent epigenetic modifications of specific genes and pathways involved in memory and learning.

Toll-like receptor-4 null mutation causes fetal loss and fetal growth restriction associated with impaired maternal immune tolerance in mice

Maternal immune adaptation to accommodate pregnancy depends on sufficient availability of regulatory T (Treg) cells to enable embryo implantation. Toll-like receptor 4 is implicated as a key upstream driver of a controlled inflammatory response, elicited by signals in male partner seminal fluid, to initiate expansion of the maternal Treg cell pool after mating. Here, we report that mice with null mutation in Tlr4 (Tlr4^(-/-)) exhibit impaired reproductive outcomes after allogeneic mating, with...

Cross-Reaction or Co-Infection? Serological Discrimination of Antibodies Directed against Dugbe and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Orthonairovirus in Nigerian Cattle

Dugbe orthonairovirus (DUGV) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus (CCHFV) are tick-borne arboviruses within the order Bunyavirales. Both viruses are endemic in several African countries and can induce mild (DUGV, BSL 3) or fatal (CCHFV, BSL 4) disease in humans. Ruminants play a major role in their natural transmission cycle. Therefore, they are considered as suitable indicator animals for serological monitoring studies to assess the risk for human infections. Although both...

Deciphering Antibody Responses to Orthonairoviruses in Ruminants

Antibody cross-reactivities between related viruses are common diagnostic challenges, resulting in reduced diagnostic specificities and sensitivities. In this study, antibody cross-reactions between neglected members of the genus Orthonairovirus-Hazara (HAZV), Dugbe (DUGV), and Nairobi sheep disease orthonairovirus (NSDV)-were investigated. Mono-specific ovine and bovine sera following experimental infections as well immunization trials with HAZV, DUGV, and NSDV were tested in homologous and...

Developing Recommendations for Cumulative Endpoints and Lifetime Use for Research Animals

Research animals are important for scientific advancement, and therefore, their long-term welfare needs to be monitored to not only minimize suffering, but to provide positive affective states and experiences. Currently, there is limited guidance in countries around the world on cumulative and experimental endpoints. This paper aims to explore current opinions and institutional strategies regarding cumulative use and endpoints through a scoping survey and review of current regulations and...

Health and Welfare Survey of 30 Dairy Goat Farms in the Midwestern United States

Dairy goat production in the Midwestern United States is increasing at a rapid rate and information on dairy goat husbandry practices applicable for producers in this region is limited. The objective of this study was to survey 30 dairy goat farms in the Midwestern US to provide insight into husbandry practices pertaining to health, welfare, and production, and to identify areas of future research. A questionnaire was developed and comprised 163 questions that were organized into categories...

Early Postnatal Genistein Administration Affects Mice Metabolism and Reproduction in a Sexually Dimorphic Way

The phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) may interfere with permanent morphological changes in the brain circuits sensitive to estrogen. Due to the frequent use of soy milk in the neonatal diet, we aimed to study the effects of early GEN exposure on some physiological and reproductive parameters. Mice of both sexes from PND1 to PND8 were treated with GEN (50 mg/kg body weight, comparable to the exposure level in babies fed with soy-based formulas). When adult, we observed, in GEN-treated females, an...

A case study of ventilation shutdown with the addition of high temperature and humidity for depopulation of pigs

CASE DESCRIPTION: In February 2020, a swine farm operating in multiple states throughout the Midwest began to evaluate emergency plans to respond to potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Assessment of vaccine herd protection: Lessons learned from cholera and typhoid vaccine trials

Vaccine herd protection is the extension of the defense conferred by immunization beyond the vaccinated to unvaccinated persons in a population, as well as the enhancement of the protection among the vaccinated, due to vaccination of the surrounding population. Vaccine herd protection has traditionally been inferred from observations of disease trends after inclusion of a vaccine in national immunization schedules. Rather than awaiting outcomes of widescale vaccine deployment, earlier-stage...